There is no information hidden within a barcode. The lines are a font that a barcode scanner reads to tell it what the numbers are that are shown below in the human readable format.
Every retailer, whether online or in a physical store, will have a check-in process. They will tell you what information (company name, product name, product description, barcode number, etc.) they want from you and they will tell you how they want you to submit that information to them. Once they have that information, they will input it into their point of sale database. Each different retailer has to do this. That is what allows you to go to various stores and buy the exact same product with the exact same barcode number, but have it be sold for different prices.